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Buque Escuela Fragata A.R.A. "Libertad " - Q2

 

Dibujo de Ignacio Amendolara

 

Regresó a Buenos Aires nuestra Fragata Libertad!!03/2013

La odisea de Ghana visto por la imaginacion y la pluma de Hormiga Negra El mascarón de proa de la Fragata Libertad - Un proyecto que no pudo ser
La Libertad en Boston 2009 Un Viaje en la Fragata Libertad, Marzo del 2009
Fotos del Viaje de Instruccion 1966 Fotos del Viaje de Instruccion 2003    Pag. 1    Pag 2  
Fotos del Viaje de Instruccion 1987  Pag. 1  Pag. 2 Arch Viasoli Renovacion en el 2006
Su diseño y velamen Itinerario 2007

ACLARACION SOBRE EL NOMBRE DE LA FRAGATA "LIBERTAD"

Dado que erróneamente en varios artículos recientes de diarios y revistas (Diciembre del 2012) se comenta que la Fragata Libertad se llamaba al comienzo "Eva Peron", cosa que negamos, sugerimos leer este articulo de una fuente inobjetable.

Presidente Peron colocando el primer remache, 1953. AGN, archivo GaviotaANTartica

ELECCION DEL NOMBRE

La selección de los nombres a asignar a las unidades navales argentinas se encontraba reglamentado por la Armada, siendo una atribución del Poder Ejecutivo la elección.

Por el decreto 101.735/937 se habían establecido algunas normas al respecto. Este documento estaba firmado por el Presidente Justo y refrendado por el Ministro de Marina almirante Eleazar Videla. No menciona el caso de buques escuela, pero como dato curioso podemos decir que establece que se conservarán los nombres de 25 de Mayo y La Argentina para unidades tipo crucero “en homenaje a la tradición naval”. En esos momentos estaba en construcción el Crucero ARA La Argentina en Gran Bretaña. Si bien era un crucero y por ende se cumplía la reglamentación, la compra y diseño obedecía a la necesidad de tener un buque escuela en remplazo de la Fragata ARA Presidente Sarmiento.

En el año 47 Perón también había firmado un decreto con estas normas pero allí tampoco se hacía mención a buques escuela.

En el mes de julio de 1952 el Comandante de Operaciones Navales, almirante Ernesto Villanueva, le envía un expediente al Ministro de Marina donde pide que se ordene este tema, agregando un proyecto de decreto con las nuevas propuestas. Villanueva muestra que la reglamentación anterior no se está cumpliendo y que siempre existe un justificativo. Se deben establecer normas que se puedan cumplir y no den lugar a ambigüedades.

Es así como en cumplimiento del decreto 387/55, firmado por Perón, el Ministro Olivieri firma una Resolución con fecha 1 de abril de 1955 donde se fijan los lineamientos a seguir en relación con los nombres de unidades navales.

Allí se establece que los acorazados, portaviones y cruceros deberán llevar nombres de próceres civiles o militares o fechas de gran significación nacional.

Los destructores, fragatas y submarinos, nombres de provincias, territorios nacionales, grandes ciudades o nombres tradicionales de buques de la Armada.

Hay otros incisos con más casos, y en el último, el inc. f) se refiere a Buques escuela. “Se mantendrán los nombres La Argentina y Presidente Sarmiento para la denominación de buques escuela”

Producida la Revolución Libertadora, el Presidente de AFNE, vicealmirante (RE) Abelardo Pantín, en marzo de 1956, envía una nota al Ministro de Marina, almirante Teodoro Hartung, informándole que el “futuro velero” en construcción en ese astillero estará en condiciones de ser botado el 1 de mayo de ese año por lo cual pide que se le informe cual será el nombre asignado.

Inmediatamente el Ministro le ordena al Comandante de Operaciones Navales que efectúe un estudio y se proponga un nombre para ese nuevo buque.  Mientras tanto le sugiere que sea La Argentina, y que al crucero homónimo se le cambie a Gral San Martín por lo cual el Rompehielos, que había sido incorporado en diciembre de 1954, debería cambiar también y llamarse “Almirante Irizar, Antártida Argentina, Gurruchaga o Bouchard”.

Finalmente el decreto 7922/56, informado por Boletín Naval Público 269/56 dispuso que el nombre fuera Libertad. 

Botadura de la Fragata LIbertad en el Astillero Rio Santiago ek 30-05-1956-Foto Archivo General de la Nacion 221780A

 

Desplazamiento: 3.765 Tn.  a plena carga.
Dimensiones: 91,7 x 14,31 x 6,6 (mts), incluido bauprés 103,7 mts
Propulsión : 2 motores Diesel,  1 hélice. Se modifico todo su sistema en el 2006/2007
Velocidad : 13.5 Nudos.
Autonomía: 12.000 Millas náuticas a 8 Nudos.
Tripulación: 200 Hombres más 150 cadetes navales.
Aparejo: Fragata de 4 palos (Bauprés, Trinquete, Mayor y Mesana) con gavias dobles, 5 vergas por palo, sólo 3 cruzados que pueden bracearse 45º, con 27 velas de dacrom. En el bauprés se afirman 5 foques, en el trinquete 5 cuadras y 3 cuchillas, en el mayor 5 cuadras y 3 cuchillas, y en el mesana 5 cuadras y 1 cangreja. Superficie vélica: 2.652 m2, altura máxima palo mayor 49,8 mts.
Armamento: 4 cañones de 47 mm como batería de saludo.
Radares: Navegación Decca. 
Reseña 
Histórica:
A lo largo de la historia desde 1873, la Armada Argentina contó con buques escuela que sirvieron de crisol para modelar a los futuros oficiales en la vida del mar. 
Actualmente realiza esta tarea la fragata A.R.A. "Libertad", obra destacada de astilleros nacionales, diseñada y construida por argentinos, que en 1963 inició su vida como nave de instrucción recorriendo los mares del mundo. 
Premios otorgados: 
"GRAN MEDALLA": Obtenido en 1966 "Record Mundial de Velocidad de Grandes Veleros en el cruce del Océano Atlántico Norte", al haber realizado la travesía desde Cabo Race (Canadá) hasta la línea imaginaria Dublin-Liverpool, recorriendo 2058,6 millas en un tiempo de 8 días y 12 horas. El mismo aún no ha sido batido. 
COPA "BOSTON TEAPOT": obtenida en 5 oportunidades, otorgada anualmente por la "Sail Trainning Association" a aquel velero que tripulado con más del cincuenta por ciento del personal en instrucción, recorra la máxima distancia solamente a vela, en un período de 124 horas de navegación. 
En 1966 recorrió 1.335 millas, en 1976 navegó 1.247 millas, en 1979 hizo 1.029 millas, en 1981 alcanzó 1.115 millas y en 1987 hizo 1.173 millas. 
En 1992, participó de la "Gran Regata Colón 92" que se realizó en conmemoración de los 500 años del descubrimiento de América. 
Es el noveno buque de la Armada Argentina que lleva este nombre.

A ser traducido a la mayor brevedad. Gracias, Alfredo Cecchini.

Career (Argentina)

Name: Libertad
Owner: Argentine Navy

Ordered:13 November 1953 (from a 1946 project)

Builder: Río Santiago Shipyard, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

Laid down:11 December 1953 Launched: 30 May 1956
Commissioned: 28 May 1963

Status: Commissioned, in active service

General characteristics

Type: Steel hulled, full-rigged class "A" tall ship

Displacement:3,765 metric tonnes

Length:103.75 m (340.4 ft) (hull 91.7 meters)
Beam: 14.31 m (46.9 ft)
Draft:6.60 m (21.7 ft)

Propulsion: Pre mlu: 2 × Sulzer diesel engines Post mlu: 2 × MAN diesel engines B&W mod. 6L23/30-D, each with 6 inline cylinders and 960 kW at 900 rpm

Speed: Pre mlu: 13.5 knots (25.0 km/h) Post mlu: 13.73 knots (25.43 km/h)

Range: 12,000 nautical miles (22,000 km) at 8 knots (15 km/h)

Complement: 24 officers, 187 crewmen, as well as 150 cadets

Armament: 4 47 mm QF 3 pounder Hotchkiss cannons


ARA Libertad (Q-2) is a steel hulled, full rigged, class "A" sailing ship that serves as a school vessel in the Argentine Navy. One of the largest and fastest tall ships in the world, holder of several speed records, she was designed and built in the 1950s by the Río Santiago Shipyard, Ensenada, Argentina. Her maiden voyage was in 1961, and she continues to be a training ship with yearly instruction trips for the graduating naval cadets as well as a traveling goodwill ambassador, having covered more than 800,000 nautical miles (1,500,000 km) across all seas, visited about 500 ports in more than 60 countries,[11] and trained more than 11,000 navy graduates.

Specifications

The ninth Argentine Navy vessel to bear the name Libertad, she has a total length (including bowsprit) of 103.75 m; a beam of 14.31 m; a draft of 6.60 m; and a displacement of 3,765 metric tonnes: these figures place ARA Libertad as the world's sixth longest tall ship and the third heaviest in displacement. Her complement is 357, including 24 officers, 187 crewmen and 150 naval cadets, among them an ever increasing number of invited officers from friendly nations' armed forces, personnel from the Argentine Army, Air Force and Coast Guard, students, journalists and distinguished people from different areas and disciplines, both local and foreign.

The ship's follows the archetypal windjammer design, with a clipper bow and a wood-carved figurehead representing Liberty in a long flowing robe and a cruiser stern bearing the Argentine coat of arms in cast bronze.

She is an all square rigged vessel, with bowsprit and three steel masts –Fore, Main (height of 56,2m), and Mizzen with boom– with double topsails and five yardarms each, which can rotate up to 45 degrees on each side. Five jibs are fixed to the bowsprit. All masts have five square sails, with the foremast and mainmast having three staysails, and the mizzen, a spanker, summing up 27 dacron sails with a total sail area of 2,652 square meters. Masts have a circular cross section, formed by welded steel sheets between 9.5mm and 12mm thick.

The vessel carries four fully functional 47 mm QF 3 pounder Hotchkiss cannons, 1891 model, which were transferred from the previous school ship ARA Presidente Sarmiento.[citation needed] Although only used as a protocolar salute battery, these cannons make Libertad the second most heavily armed tall ship in the world.

History

Design, construction and commissioning

A bronze plaque reading "Built at Río Santiago Shipyard - A.F.N.E. Argentine Republic - Year 1962" (in Spanish) on board ARA Libertad

Continuously since 1873 the Argentine Navy had a number of commissioned school ships in active service for training future officers in seamanship skills. In 1938, after retirement of ARA Presidente Sarmiento as seagoing academy vessel, her role was temporarily undertaken by the light cruiser ARA La Argentina. The project for a definitive replacement ship fully conceived and built by Argentines started in 1946.


On 11 December 1953, during Juan Domingo Perón's second term, the vessel's keel was laid down at the Río Santiago Shipyard, A.F.N.E. ("State Shipbuilding and Naval Factories", itself a peronist creation). Between 1954 and 1955 the shipyard engineers included several modifications to the vessel's original design and configuration. During the de facto government of the self called "Liberating Revolution" the name "Libertad" was imposed by decree number 7922 (April 27, 1956).

On 30 May 1956 she was launched to sea, but her completion and commissioning suffered the vicissitudes of that Argentine period's unease political situation. The sea trials began in March 1961 and were carried to term under the command of Captain Atilio Porretti, who ordered changes to the vessel's rigging and figurehead. During this baptism voyage the ship successfully rode out a violent South Atlantic Ocean tempest. In March 1962 she joined the Navy's Instruction Division, formally starting out as the country's school ship.[1] One year later, on 28 May 1963, the finished frigate was delivered to the Argentine Navy and, with the ceremonial hoisting of the Argentine Ensign, formally commissioned to replace ARA La Argentina as the Navy's school ship. On June 19, and without her figurehead attached (still being carved in wood by Galician-Argentine sculptor Carlos García González), she sailed from Buenos Aires on her first training voyage in command of Captain Horacio Ferrari, along with officers Orlando Perez Cobo, Heinz Otto Grunewald, and Lieutenant Commander Mario A. Manfredi as public relations officer.

Trophies and notable voyages

In 1964 the frigate competed for the first time in a major offshore race for tall ships between the ports of Lisbon and Hamilton, Bermuda. In 1965 she completed her first round-the-world trip.

In 1966, during her fourth instruction voyage, ARA Libertad won the Great Medal Prize for establishing the tall ships' world record for crossing the North Atlantic Ocean using only sail propulsion. She did so by running between Cape Race (Canada) and the imaginary line going from Dublin to Liverpool –2,058.6 nautical miles (3,812.5 km)– in 8 days and 12 hours, a record that has not been beaten. During the same trip, she also set the 124 hour run record for a sail school ship at 1,335 nautical miles,[16] for which she was awarded the Boston Beanpot Trophy.[8] The captain was Commander Ricardo Guillermo Franke, and the Boston Teapot was presented by Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh in name of Queen Elizabeth II. Libertad has won the Boston Teapot Trophy nine times in total: in 1966, 1976, 1981, 1985, 1987, 1992, 1998, 2000, and 2007.

In 1970 she was part of the "Parade of Large Sailboats" in Sydney celebrating the bicentenary of the first European settlement in Australia.

The ship took part in the celebrations of the United States Bicentennial on July 4, 1976 by sailing in parade, with many other tall ships from all over the world, on the Hudson River, in front of New York City, in what was called Operation Sail. She also participated in 1964, 1986, 1992 and 2012. During 1976's Operation Sail the Spanish ship Juan Sebastián Elcano collided with Libertad and with the full-rigged, three masted Norwegian ship Christian Radich just off the coast of Bermuda. The collision snapped Elcano's foremast just above the forecourse yardarm, forcing her to abandon the race and return to New York under engine power. Libertad suffered only light damage (two torn sails, smashed lifeboats and port rail) and, like Christian Radich, continued in the competition without problems.

In 1985 raced in "Sail Amsterdam" in the Netherlands and in the celebrations for the Statue of Liberty centenary in New York. One year later Libertad sailed in Bremerhaven in Germany. In 1989, among many events, she was part of "Les Voiles de la Liberte" for the bicentennial of the French Revolution in the port of Rouen, France.

In 1992 was part of the great Cadiz regatta in commemoration of the 500 anniversary of Columbus' 1492 voyage. In 1997 she sailed in the international race "Sail Osaka 97" in celebration of the 100th anniversary of the port of Osaka, Japan.

In 1998 Libertad won Americas' Sail tall ship race between Savannah, Georgia and Glen Cove, New York, United States.

In 1999 took part in the gathering of tall ships "The Navy of the Century" in France.

By presidential decree number 727 (May 30, 2001) the frigate was designated as "Embassy of the Republic as a matter of honorary distinction and with purely protocolar effect".

On 2 October 2003, she caught fire while anchored off the Spanish port of Ferrol during that year's training trip. The incident severely damaged the ship's hull and bedrooms of aspiring midshipmen, and five sailors were hospitalized for smoke inhalation. Three fire fighting squads brought the fire under control after three hours. Following this incident, between 2004 and 2006 the instructional trips were made aboard the multipurpose ship ARA Hercules.

ARA Libertad participated in Velas Sudamerica 2010, an historical Latin American tour by eleven tall ships to celebrate the bicentennial of the first national governments of Argentina and Chile.

Mid-life update

In 2004 she underwent a general mid-life update with special effort put into security and comfort, seeking to extend the vessel's lifespan for at least another forty years.[5] The extensive works were finished in April 2007 and included:

• New integral painting
• Replacement of all Burma teak linings
• Modernization of steering gear
• Renewal of kitchens, laundry, nursing and dental office equipment
• Upgrading of all light appliances
• Replacement of all ship's piping and vents, using new materials and adapting them to the new embedded systems
• Building foundations for the new systems and equipment parts

The overhaul, performed at Río Santiago Shipyard by more than 350 workers, required 285 tonnes of metal for the hull, decks and internal structures and over 25 tonnes of different shaped steel profiles.

Bedrooms and bathrooms were refitted to allow the incorporation of female midshipmen, corporals and sergeants, in line with current diversity policies in the Argentine Navy. The propulsion plant was upgraded to two MAN B&W turbocharged diesel engines mod. 6L23/30-D, each with six inline cylinders and 960 kW at 900 rpm that improved performance to a maximum speed of 13.73 knots and a cruising speed of 12.5 knots (from previous 13.5 and 8 knots respectively) This modification included replacing the propeller shaft.

The radar navigation system was replaced by an advanced model that holds greater scope and definition. The vessel update also included changing all power, communications, alarm, signalling and monitoring cabling, an adaptation required for the newly incorporated systems. The rigging was fully upgraded, which included bringing down, checking and repairing the spars, and renewing more than 55,000 meters of ropes, shrouds, backstays and steel cables.

During the three years Libertad was under overhaul, cadets sailed on the Navy's corvettes ARA Rosales, ARA Spiro, ARA Parker and on the Chilean Navy school ship Esmeralda (BE-43)

Ghana incident

In early October 2012 the vessel was impounded in the port of Tema, Ghana, by a court ruling in favour of NML Capital, a subsidiary of Cayman Islands hedge fund Elliott Management Corporation, which claimed that it was owed US$370m (£233m) as a consequence of Argentina's debt defaults of 2002, and was seeking payment of $20m for release of the vessel. NML was not originally a creditor, but bought the debt for "pennies on the dollar" according to Forbes. Argentina's foreign ministry condemned the move, claiming it as "a stunt" pulled by "vulture funds, who are not subject to the laws of any jurisdiction".

On 25 October 2012 most of the ship's crew returned to Argentina, leaving the captain and 43 crew members with the ship in Ghana.

On 15 December 2012 the UN International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea ruled unanimously that the ship had immunity as a military vessel, and ordered that "Ghana should forthwith and unconditionally release the frigate ARA Libertad", and report to the Tribunal on compliance by 22 December.[31][38] Libertad was released from Tema on 19 December. She arrived on 9 January 2013 to the port of Mar del Plata, where the ship got an enthusiastic homecoming.[39] Following the International Tribunal ruling, the Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority sued NML Capital for damages of least US$7.6 million related to the Libertad's impoundment. The Supreme Court of Ghana ruled in June 2013 that the 77-day impoundment was "unjustified, and could have endangered the security of Ghana by triggering a diplomatic conflict."

Honors and decorations

• Medal of Honor to the Naval Merit "Commander Pedro Campbell", awarded by the Navy of Uruguay.
• Order of Naval Merit, awarded by the Navy of the Dominican Republic.
• Order of Naval Merit Admiral Padilla, awarded by the Navy of Colombia.
• Order of Rio Branco, awarded by the Federative Republic of Brazil.

 

        
Esta medalla conmemorativa, que  recuerda la botadura de la Fragata Libertad, pertenece al buzo Paulino González. Paulino era el encargado de la Estación de Salvamento y Buceo en Río Santiago cuando se realizó la fragata. Tuvo a su cargo la tarea de construir la rampa de deslizamiento para botarla y estuvo presente ese día tan importante y le entregaron la medalla.  Le agradecemos que la comparta con nosotros.

Muestra a la Libertad con su velamen de diseño original, que fue cambiado luego de la botadura al de fragata. Ver "Su diseño y Velamen".

    

 

Gran Medalla

Trofeo "Boston Teapot"

Recuerda la obtención del record mundial de velocidad en el cruce del Atlántico Norte a vela. El mismo fue logrado durante al realización del IV viaje de instrucción, en el año 1966, al haber realizado la travesía desde el cabo Race (Canadá) hasta la linea Dublin - Liverpool, recorriendo un total de 2.058 millas en 8 días 12 horas.(10,088 nudos) El mismo aún no ha sido batido. Obtuvo en seis oportunidades la "Boston Teapot", que anualmente otorga la "Sail Training Association" al velero que, con el 50% de su dotación en instrucción, recorre la máxima distancia en 24 horas de navegación a vela.