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DESTRUCTOR "BROWN" 1961 D- 20

 

Nombre: "BROWN"

Tipo: Destructor  clase Fletcher (ver Rosales)                    Año de referencia: 1961

Otros nombres: Es el ex U. S. S. "Heerman" (U. S. S. DD-532).

Lugar de construcción: Boston. Massachussetts, EE.UU. de America.

Forma de adquisición: Préstamo-arriendo del gobierno de los EE. UU. de América, por canje de notas del 4 de Marzo y 1º de Abril de 1960, avaladas por decreto N' 2216 "S" del 22 de marzo de 1961. El empleo de estas unidades fué condicionada a los términos del acuerdo. Discurso del C.E.J.A., día de la Armada 1968 - B. N. P. Nº 160/968).

Datos del buque: Eslora: 113 m.;  Manga: 12 m. Puntal: 5,40 m. Calado medio: 4,10 m. Desplazamiento: 2.700 Tn.

Armamento: 4 cañones de cinco pulgadas. 6 cañones de tres pulgadas (Luego 6 cañones en montajes dobles). Juegos de tubos lanzatorpedos (5 tubos). 2 erizos de 24 cargas antisubmarinas c/u. 1 jaula lanza cargas de profundidad.


Ademas de lo nombrado,disponian de lanzadores de torpedos acusticos,lanzables desde ambas bandas,(con exclusividad de banda),complementado con el dispositivo acustico "Fanfarre" para tomarlos si regresaban,montado en popa con decenas metros de cable.-El sistema de Control de Tiro para la bateria principal,era el GFCS Mk37,que incorporaba dos novedades,para esa epoca,(Para nosotros)un Radar el MK25,que tenia Tracking automatico,(apuntado el blanco,se pasaba el Director a automatico,a partir ahi no se despegaria de el) y la calculadora de Tiro ,que dejaria de llamarse mesa de calculos para ser Computadora la MK1,seguia siendo analogica-electromecanica,en realidad estaba basada sobre las que tenian los cruceros 9 de julio y Belgrano,ya con ella el problema podia resolverse en seis segundos y si el Oficial operador estaba canchero,podia utilizar un dispositivo que reducia ese tiempo a dos segundos.-El segundo sistema,mas moderno era el GFCS MK56,con una consola futurista y un director  de tiro que podia girar sin topes ,este sistema podia controlar tanto a la bateria principal de 5" como a la secundaria de 3".-Otra novedad era el TDS,Sistema de adquisicion de blanco,tenia un display basado en el radar de busqueda,y cuatro joistick,adaptados a la defensa cuandrantal del buque,desde ahi ,si los directores de Tiro estaban en automatico,con el joistick,se los llevaba hacia el blanco elegido,a apartir del cual los tomaba el radar propio del sistema de CT.Para los erizos se disponia del sistema antisubmarino MK105,con sonar y la computadora,analogica,electromecanica,con una particularidad,estaba basada en palancas(links) Un joyita.-El mismo sistema seria instalado en el CIAO para practica de los sonaristas.

En cuanto a los cañones de 3" habian llegado al pais con sus directores de tiro ,pero sin el Alza Giroscopica correspondiente.Se aprovecho la participacion de la cuarentena sobre Cuba,y en un intermedio de la operación,se tomo puerto en San Juan de Puerto Rico,para realizar algunas reparaciones en las maquinas del Rosales,ahi se las solicito,y las dieron,(creo que su costo rondaba lso 500 mil dolares) como tambien repuestos de toda indole y municion,asi a la vuelta veniamos "cargaditos".-Se partio de San Juan,se realizo un ejercicio de tiro antiaereo con blanco remolcado,era el primero para nosotros y alcanzamos a salvar la ropa.-

Americo Lohin


Tripulación: 250 hombres.

Máquinas: Turbinas General Electric de 60.000 HP. 2 hélices. Combustible: Fuel-oil. Capacidad: 650 Tn. Velocidad: 39 nudos (máxima1. Radio de acción: 6.000 millas a 15 nudos.

HISTORIAL

Fue botado en 1943, incorporándose de inmediato a las acciones de la guerra del Pacífico, en la Escuadra Norteamericana.

1943/1945
Actuación en la Armada de los EE. UU. (ver abajo). Participó en la invasión de las islas Gilbert (1943), en los ataques a Palau y a Leyte, donde fue seriamente averiado, siendo reparado prácticamente en la zona de operaciones. Está también en el ataque a las islas Marshall (1944) y en las cabezas de plava de Okinawa e Hiro Sima, asi como también en las operaciones finales de la guerra de! Pacífico que terminan con la rendición del Japón.

Por su campaña en esa guerra recibe una "Mención Especial Presidencial", en 1944. Terminada la guerra, pasó a situación de reserva hasta el año 1961. fecha en que se decide su traspaso a la .Armada Nacional. Por Decreto N' 4859 del 1º de junio de 1961 se lo bautiza v clasifica como "Destructor" (B. N. P. 184/61). El 10 de agosto de 1961 se afirma el pabellón argentino, tomando su comando el Capitán de Fragata D. Jorge Rodríguez (B. N. P. X" 17" 61).

Prosiguen las tareas de reactivación del buque con personal argentino, y el 5 de mayo en el puerto de Norfolk, pasa a integrar la Fuerza de Tareas Nº 12.conjuntamente con el portaaviones "Independencia" emprendiendo viaje hacia el país. Previa escala en Puerto España (Trinidad) el 9 de mayo, zarpa desde esa isla el día 10 rumbo a Buenos Aires, efectuando ejercitaciones diversas de patrullado y cortina antisubmarina con la Fuerza de la cual forma parte.

1962
Incorporación a la Escuadra de Mar Llega a Buenos Aires el 24 de mayo, amarrando en Dársena "A". Es la nave insignia de la II División de Destructores, bajo el comando del Capitán de Navio D. Constantino Arguelles. El día 26 de mavo es inspeccionada por el Sr. Presidente de la República, Dr. Guido, y el día 30 de mavo zarpan hacia la Base Nava] de Puerto Belgrano, lugar que será su apostadero, donde Ilega el 19 de junio.

Se incorpora así en forma efectiva a la Flota de Mar, siendo recibida la nave por el comandante de ella, Vicealmirante D. Leandro M. Maloberti, así como el resto de la División, v en ese acto bendice a las naves el Obispo de Bahía Blanca, Monseñor Germiniano Esorto. Participa del Operativo "Unitas III", entre Golfo Nuevo y Río de Janeiro, regresando a la B. N. P. B. el 29 de septiembre.

1963
Ejerce su comando el Capitán de Fragata D. Jorge A. Ledesma- Integra la 2? División de Destructores de la Flota de Mar. Participa en las ejercitaciones de aquélla, e interviene en el Operativo "Unitas IV".Tiene como apostadero la B. N. P. B. y opera en aguas del Atlántico.

1964
El comando es ejercido por el Capitán de Fragata D. Jorge E. Zimmermann. Es un año de gran actividad naval. Continúa integrando la 2* Divides. Participa del Operativo "Unitas V". El 8 de julio, en el puerto de Buenos Aires recibe su pabellón de guerra, donado por el Instituto Browniano. Interviene en el Operativo "Caimán", conjunto con el Ejército Argentino.

"Mare Nostrum"
El comando lo ejerce el Capitán de Fragata D. Tirso R. Brizuela. Forma parte ele la 2a División de Destructores de la Flota de Mar. Participa del adiestramiento de ésta, v en septiembre realiza, conjuntamente con los destructores "Espora" y "Rosales", y los buques de la Armada Italiana "San Giorgío", "'Cario Margottini" v "Virgilio Fassani" el Operativo denominado "Vare Nostrum', en el cual se desarrollan tácticas antisubmarinas, ante el ataque simulado de los sumergibles "Santa Fe" y "Santiago del Estero", colaborando aviones "Neptune" de la Aviación Naval.

Realiza todas las las navegaciones de adiestramiento de su División de la que es parte. Visita Buenos Aires en julio, recibiendo el 3 de ese mes su pabellón de combate como donacion del pueblo de Adrogué, Partido de Alm. Brown, Bs. Aires.

1965
"Sayonara"
Entra en Buenos Aires para las fiestas de Julio. A continuacion, con el Crucero Italiano "Caio Duilio" realiza ejercitaciones antisubmarinas y antiaéreas en el Atlántico Sur.  Interviene en el Operativo 'Unítas VI". A fines de agosto participa en el Operativo "Sayonara", con el "Espora", el "Rosales" y los submarinos "Santa Fe" y "Santiago del Estero" y los buques japoneses "Akizuki', "Terezuki", "Yudachi" y "Murassame", al mando del Contraalmirante D. Mario Coga. Se efectúa un interesante ejercicio de lucha antisubmarina, en el Atlántico Sur. También participa en el Operativo "Caio Duilio" con unidades italianas.

1966
Es su comandante el Capitán de Fragata D. Raymundo C. Suárez. Se mantiene en la 2* Divides de la Flota de Mar. No hay este año participación argentina al "Unitas VII". Participa en el operativo combinado "Sudatlántico". con la Armada Uruguaya. Participa en la Revista Naval en Mar del Plata. Para las fiestas patrias de julio visita Buenos Aires.

1967
Unitas VIII
Participa en julio del "Operativo Austral 67" con la Armada Británica. El comando lo ejerce el Capitán de Fragata D. Juan A. Valente. En Octubre interviene en el "Unitas VIII", como nave almirante en la primera etapa conjuntamente con el "Espora" el "San Juan", el "Punta Médanos" y aVIONES NAVALES. iNTERVIENEN ADEMÁS LOS uss nAVY Navy "Norfolk", "Glennon" y "Mullinix", el submarino "Sennet" y aviones, el destructor uruguayo "Artigas", y en una etapa posterior Ios brasileños Tamandare", "Para" "Paraná". "Paraiba, "Pernambuco", "Belmonte" y submarino "Río Grande do Sul". El operativo finalizó el 7 de noviembre en Río de Janeiro.

 Participa en diciembre en el Operativo "Orea". Integra la 2* División de Destructores de la Flota de Mar, con la cual interviene en el adiestramiento y actividad del año.

1968
Es su comandante el Capitán de Fragata D. Juan M. Escobar. Como insignia de la 2* División de Destructores —que integra el "Rosales" y el "Espora"—,  participa de la actividad del año naval, y el adiestramiento de la Flota de Mar.

1969
Desempeña su comando el Capitán ele Fragata D. Edgardo ]. Segura. Participa del "Unitas X" y según los comentarios del Comando del Submarino U. S. N. "Grampus", es "el buque que no le dio respiro" durante las ejercitaciones.  También interviene en el Operativo "Lince" en aguas de Golfo Nuevo.

1970
Unitas XI
El comando lo desempeña el Capitán de Fragata D. Edmundo Núñez. Integra la 2' Divides de la Flota de Mar. Participa de las ejercitaciones de ésta e interviene en el Operativo "Unitas XI" que se realiza en octubre. En él se desarrollan actividades antisubmarinas y otros ejercicios, participando los buques norteamericanos destructores U. S. N. "Harry E. Yarnell". "Myles Fox" y "John Willis", el submarino U. S. N. "Pickerel" v los A. R. A. "Brown", "Espora", "Rosales", submarino "Santa Fe", el "B. T. Punta Médanos" y aviones a navales. La ejercitación se inicia en la B. N. P. B. y finaliza en Comodoro Rivadavia.

1971
Ejerce su comando el Capitán de Fragata D. José N. Estévez. A Integra la 2* División de Destructores de la Flota de Mar, y con ella participa activamente en las ejercitaciones previstas, incluvendo el Operativo "Unitas XII"

1972
Se designa comandante, para 1972, al Capitán de Fragata D. Carlos Noé Guevara.  Los comadnates siguientes fueron los CFragata Sebastian Villanuve aen 73-74, Jorge Valarino en 74-75 7 Jorge Portugal en 1975.

Su ultima navegacion fue el 18-11-1975 hasta Puerto Belgrano, Fue vendido a los Establecimientos Metalúrgicos Santa Rosa para desguace como chatarra, siuendo entregado el 18.12.1979.

 Fuentes documentales: B. N. P.; A. G. M.
Información complementaria: Es el cuarto buque de la Armada que lleva —en una forma u otra— el nombre del héroe naval argentino indiscutido: el Almirante D. Guillermo Brown.
Bibliografía especial: "Gaceta Marinera" N' 44 (1963) y subsiguientes de la  serie de artículos "¿Sabe Usted quién fue «Fletcher»?"

Ver el articulo sobre los Fletcher en la pagina del DDRosales.

 

DD-532  USS Heermann

(DD-532: dp. 2,100- 1. 376'3"; b. 39'8", dr. 13', s. over 30 k.; cpl. 273; a. 5 5", 10 21" tt., 6 dcp.; 2 dct.; cl.Fletcher )

Heermann (DD-532) was launched 5 December 1942 by the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Co. of San Francisco; sponsored by Mrs. Edward B. Briggs, wife of Lt. E. B. Briggs, USCGR, great grandson of the namesake, and commissioned 6 July 1943, Cmdr. Dwight M. Agnew, USN. in command

After shakedown training out of San Diego, Heermann joined the 5th Fleet 21 October 1943 for the assault on the Gilbert Islands, the second major offensive thrust in the Navy's conquest of Japan's far-flung Pacific empire. She arrived off Tarawa in Rear Admiral Harry W. Hill's Southern Attack Force 20 November. 
Her guns sank a small enemy craft inside the lagoon and the next 2 days powerfully assisted troops ashore with close-in fire support. With the island secured, she returned to Pearl Harbor for voyage repairs and training which ended 23 January when she sailed in the screen of an attack transport reserve force. The ships steamed east of Kwajalein while Rear Admiral Turner's Joint Expeditionary Force landed on that atoll 31 January. In the ensuing 2 weeks Heermann patrolled off Kwajalein and operated in the screen of escort carriers which were launching strikes in support of troops ashore. Then she steamed to Eniwetok Atoll where she joined in the preinvasion bombardment of Japan and Parry Islands, gave close fire support to the troops once they were ashore, and then patrolled off the atoll during mop-up operations.

Heermann set course first for Majuro Lagoon and then Purvis Bay, Florida Island, Solomons and reported to Commander 3d Fleet and Task Force 39, 18 March 1944. For the next month she divided her time between protecting troop and resupply convoys which were occupying Emirau Island and hunting enemy supply barges along the coast of New HanoverBack in Port Purvis 3 June, Heermann participated in the bombardment of a tank farm on Fangelawa Bay, New Ireland, 11 June, and then searched for submarines along sealanes leading from the Solomons towards the Admiralties, the Carolines, and the Marshall Islands until 26 June. The summer of 1944 found Heermann busy escorting Navy and Merchant shipping to rendezvous where they joined convoys bound for various ports. This duty took her to Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides Islands and Noumea, New Caledonia Island.

Haciendo una cortina de humo en la batalla del Golfo de Leyte, Octubre de 1944

Heermann cleared Port Purvis 6 September 1944 with Rear Admiral William D. Sample's escort carrier force that provided air support during the invasion of the Palau Islands. After replenishing at Seeadler Harbor, Admiralty Islands, she sortied 12 October 1944 with a fire support group for the liberation of the Philippine Islands.

Heermann screened transports and landing ships safely to the beaches of Leyte and then joined Rear Admiral Thomas L. Sprague's Escort Carrier Group (Task Group 77.4) which was made up of three escort carrier task units, known as the "Three Taffies" because of their voice calls: "Taffy 1", "Taffy 2", and "Taffy 3". Destroyers Hoel and Johnston joined her in screening Rear Admiral Clifton A. F. Sprague's unit, "Taffy 3" which also included his flagship Fanshaw Bay (CVE 70) and three other escort carriers

Dawn of 25 October 1944 found "Taffy 3" east of Samar steaming north as the Northern Air Support Group. "Taffy 2" was in the central position patrolling off the entrance to Leyte Gulf, and "Taffy 1" covered the Southern approaches to the Gulf some 130 miles to the southeast of Heermann's "Taffy 3". At 0645 "Taffy 3's" lookouts observed antiaircraft fire to the northward and within 3 minutes were under heavy fire from Japanese Admiral Kurita's powerful Center Force of four battleships, 6 heavy cruisers, 2 light cruisers, and 11 destroyers. The battle off Samar was thus joined.

The only chance for survival of the little group of light American ships lay in slowing the advances of the enemy warships while withdrawing toward Leyte Gulf and hoped-for assistance. The carriers promptly launched their planes to attack the Japanese vessels, and the escorts promptly set to work generating smoke to hide the American ships.

Vista general lateral

Heermann, in a position of comparative safety on the disengaged side of the carriers at the start of the fight, steamed into the action at flank speed through the formation of "baby flattops" who, after launching their last planes, formed a rough circle as they turned toward Leyte Gulf. Since smoke and intermittent rain squalls had reduced visibility to less than 100 yards, it took alert and skillful seamanship to avoid colliding with friendly ships during the dash to battle. She backed emergency full to avoid destroyer escort Samuel B. Roberts and repeated the maneuver to miss destroyer Hoel as Heermann formed column on the screen flagship in preparation for a torpedo attack.

As she began the run, dye from enemy shells daubed the water nearby with circles of brilliant red, yellow., and green. Heermann replied to this challenge by pumping her 5-inch shells at one heavy cruiser, Chikuma, as she directed seven torpedoes at another, Haguro. When the second of these "fish" had left the tube, Heermann changed course to engage a column of four battleships whose shells began churning the water nearby. She trained her guns on Kongo, the column's leader, at whom she launched three torpedoes. Then she quickly closed Haruna, the target of her last three torpedoes, which were launched from only 4,400 yards. 
Believing that one of the "fish" had hit the battleship, she nimbly dodged the salvoes which splashed in her wake as she retired. Japanese records claim that the battleship successfully evaded all of Heermann's torpedoes, but they were slowed down in their pursuit of the American carriers. The giant, Yamato, with her monstrous 18.1-inch guns, was even forced out of the action altogether when, caught between two spreads, she reversed course for almost 10 minutes to escape being hit.

Foto de tiempo de guerra, se observa bien la disposicion y tipo de armamento de este tipo de destructor

Heermann sped to the starboard quarter of the carrier formation to lay more concealing smoke and then charged back into the fight a few minutes later, placing herself boldly between the escort carriers and the column of four enemy heavy cruisers. Here she engaged Japanese cruiser Chikuma in a duel which seriously damaged both ships. A series of 8-inch hits flooded the forward part of the plucky destroyer, pulling her bow down so far that her anchors were dragging in the water. One of her guns was knocked out but the others continued to pour a deadly stream of 5-inch shells at the cruiser, which also came under heavy air attack during the engagement. The combined effect of Heermann's guns and the bombs, torpedoes, and strafing from carrier-based planes was too much for Chikama who tried to withdraw but sank during her flight.

Con el camouflage de guerra.

As Chikuma turned away, heavy cruiser Tone turned her guns on Heermann who replied shell for shell until she reached a position suitable to resume laying smoke for the carriers. At this point planes from Admiral Stump's "Taffy 2" swooped in to sting Tone so severely that she too broke off action and fled. The courageous attacks of the destroyers and aircraft thus saved the outgunned task groups.

Heermann retired to Kossol Passage for temporary repairs before getting underway for Mare Island and overhaul which was completed 15 January 1945. She then returned to the Western Pacific to join fast carrier task forces in raids against the Japanese mainland which helped to demoralize the Japanese people and to prepare them for surrender. During the fighting to take Iwo Jima, Heermann supported operations ashore by radar and antisubmarine picket duty. On 20 March 1945-, she sank a small surface vessel and rescued seven of her crew after she went down. Seven days later she took part in the night bombardment of Minamo Daito Jima. During the Okinawa campaign she took several enemy planes under fire as she guarded carriers which provided air support for troops ashore. On 18 April with the assistance destroyers Mertz, McCord, Collett, and Uhlmann and planes from aircraft carrier Bataan, Heermann sank Japanese submarine I-55, a carrier of the dreaded "kaitens". human-guided suicide torpedoes. She continued to support carrier operations off Okinawa until retiring to Leyte Gulf for replenishment and voyage repairs late in June. On 1 July she helped to screen the fast carrier force which devoted the ensuing 5 weeks to almost continuous air strikes and bombardment.

Haciendo una cortina de humo en la batalla del Golfo de Leyte, Octubre de 1944

On 15 August 1945 Heermann was on radar picket station some 200 miles southeast of Tokyo when. several hours after the announcement of the end of hostilities, a suicide plane emerged from a cloud bank and began to dive in Heermann's direction only to be splashed by the destroyer's alert gunners in one of the final naval actions of World War II. In the following weeks Heermann operated in the screen of the fast carrier task force providing air cover and airsea rescue service while General MacArthur and Admiral Nimitz were preparing to occupy Japan. She entered Tokyo Bay 16 September 1945, and remained in the area to support 
the occupation forces until 7 October when she sailed for the United States. She decommissioned at San Diego 12 June 1946.


Heermann remained in reserve at San Diego until recommissioning 12 September 1951. After training in local waters and upkeep in San Francisco, she departed San Diego 4 January 1952 for her new base, Newport, R.I., where she arrived 23 January. She spent the year 1952 training in waters stretching from the New England coast to the Virginia Capes, followed by intensive antisubmarine warfare and fleet problems during winter cruising in the Caribbean. She returned to Newport to resume operation along the Northeastern seaboard. After a voyage to Plymouth, England, in June and July 1953, she participated in antisubmarine 
maneuvers between Newport and the Virginia capes.


Heermann departed on a world cruise 3 December 1953. First she sailed for Yokosuka, Japan, by way of the Panama Canal, San Diego, and the Hawaiian Islands. After a 2-day replenishment in Yokosuka, she set course for Okinawa where she acted as part of the escort for 3d Marine Division amphibious warfare landings and conducted barrier patrol in support of the exercise. After more maneuvers took her to Korea, Iwo Jima, and the South Coast of Japan, she returned to Yokosuka which she cleared 22 May 1954 to resume her world cruise, calling at Hong Kong and Singapore on her way to the Suez Canal. In the Mediterranean she visited Port Said, Naples, Villa Franche, and Barcelona before returning to Newport 17 July 1954.

Newport News 1957

For the next year and a half Heermann participated in training exercises along the Atlantic coast. On 1 February she sailed to join the 6th Fleet in exercises along the coast of Lebanon, Israel and Egypt.

Entrando a Mónaco, por el casamiento de Grace Kelly

In April she was invited by Prince Ranier to be in port for his wedding to Miss Grace Kelly 19-24 April 1956. She furnished a 40 man honor guard for the occasion. From Monaco she joined the 6th Fleet off Greece, and then departed for Fall River, Mass., where she arrived 28 May 1956. Heermann operated out of Newport until 6 November when she sailed for the Mediterranean where she proved to be a first-rate antisubmarine ship in joint exercises with the Italian Navy. After revisiting Monaco at the invitation of Prince Ranier and Princess Grace, she returned to Fall River 20 February 1957. She served as gunnery schoolship out of Newport until 30 June when she joined Badger in the screen of antisubmarine warfare carrier Leyte for 2 weeks of air operations for the training of Academy midshipmen.

She decommissioned at Boston 20 December 1957 and was assigned to the Boston Group of the U.S. Atlantic Reserve Fleet.

En Boston, 1958, en reserva.

 On 14 August 1961 she was transferred on a loan basis to the government of Argentina under terms of the Military Assistance Program she serves in the Argentine Navy under the name Brown (D-20).

En Boston, 1961, en preparacion para su entrega a Argentina


In addition to the Presidential Unit Citation, Heermann received the Philippine Republic Unit Citation Badge and nine battle stars for World War II service.