Historia y Arqueologia Marítima
|Indice Desastres...||Indice Accidentes Maritimos|
Desastres Maritimos de la 2Ş Guerra Mundial
1943 (Esta seccion sera traducida en breve)
Estas Páginas son una traduccion especial del sitio de George Duncan "Maritime Disasters of WWII" y se hacen con el debido permiso del autor.
Traduccion: CF ARA Carlos Villa
Esta página está dedicada a todos aquellos que lucharon en las batallas navales de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. -
FIDELITY (January 1,
1943) Formerly the French merchant
ship Le Rhin (2,455 tons) requisitioned by the Admiralty, converted
to a SSV ship (Special Service Vessel) and renamed HMS
Fidelity. Armed with four inch guns, torpedoes and depth charges
she also carried two sea-planes, a motor torpedo boat and two small
landing craft. The vessel, believed by some of the crew to be totally
unseaworthy, carried out operations of an extremely hazardous nature i.e.
landing of secret agents on enemy territory. Due to the secret nature of
the ship, the crew were volunteers, the non British members sailing under
assumed names and the French and other crew members received anglicised
names. Her captain was an ex-French spy Claude Peri, who assumed the name
Jacques Langlais and to the amazement of the crew took his mistress, WRNS
officer Madeleine Barclay, onboard with him. After operations in the
Mediterranean, the Fidelity was assigned to the Far East Fleet and
sailed from Portsmouth part of the way with convoy ONS-154. In an area of the Atlantic known as the
Black Pit, an area beyond the protection aircraft, the convoy, escorted by
five Canadian corvettes, was attacked by U-boat wolf packs and over the
next five days fourteen of the forty-five ships were sunk with 510 lives
lost. The Fidelity, lagging behind with engine failure, was
torpedoed by the U-435 (KptLt. S. Strelow) on the
night of December 31,1942/January 1,1943. She went to the bottom with
almost all her compliment of 334 men (including fifty-one Royal Marine
Commandos and the WRNS officer) and about fifty survivors rescued earlier
from the SS Empire Shackelton. There were only ten men who
survived the sinking of the Fidelity.
SS ARTHUR MIDDLETON (January 1, 1943) US Liberty Ship of 7,176 tons, built in 1942 in Mobile Alabama, was torpedoed by the U-73 while enroute from New York to the North African port of Oran. The vessel, part of the 44 ship convoy UGS-3, was carrying a cargo of munitions, explosives and 300 bags of mail. At Casablanca, the convoy split up and eleven ships, including the Arthur Middleton, proceeded towards Oran escorted by three US and four British destroyers. When only three miles from her destination and preparing to enter the harbour at Oran, she was struck by the torpedo at 2:11PM. The subsequent explosion sent steel plates, flame and smoke soaring 1,000 feet into the air and broke the ship in two. Her sinking took less than two minutes. Her complement consisted of 44 crewmembers, 27 Naval Armed Guards and 12 Army personnel. Three members of the Naval Armed Guards were the only survivors who were rescued by the British destroyer HMS Boreas.
NICHIMEI MARU (January 15, 1943) Japanese transport sunk by bombs from US B-24s about two hundred miles southwest of Rangoon, Burma. Around 500 Allied prisons-of-war on board were lost.
TAKACHIHI MARU (March 19, 1943) Japanese passenger liner of 10,000 tons built in 1932 at Nagasaki. It serviced the Keeling (Formosa) to Kobe (Japan) route. Sunk 30 kilometers off the coast of Formosa, now Tiawan, by an unknown American submarine. A spread of three torpedoes struck the ship along the hull of the liner causing it to sink in just under ten minutes, just enough time for only three lifeboats to be launched. Her passengers on this fateful day were mostly civilians, both Japanese and Tiawanese, returning from Japan where they worked or studied. At this time Formosa was a Japanese colony. It was estimated that close to 1,200 passengers and crew went down to the sea bed with the Takachihi Maru, the news of its sinking being suppressed by the Japanese and even by the Chinese who took over the island in 1945. Today, few people in Tiawan are familiar with this tragedy, Tiawans biggest ever sea disaster.
HMS WELSHMAN(February 1, 1943) British minelaying cruiser of 4,000 tons attacked and sunk by the German submarine U-617 (Kptlt. Albrecht Brandi) while returning from Malta to Alexandria. Of her crew of 148 only a few survived.
USS De HAVEN (February 1, 1943) While escorting three Landing Craft Transports (LCTs) during the American landings on the beach at Marovo on Guadalcanal, the De Haven was singled out and attacked by six Japanese planes. Shooting down three of the planes the remaining three dropped their bombs on the De Haven. Three bombs hit the ship which which destroyed the bridge and killed her captain, Cmdr. Charles Tolman. A fourth bomb split her hull plates and the ship began to settle in the water and shortly after upended and sank about two miles from Savo Island, joining the company of about 50 other fighting ships that now rest in 'Iron Bottom Sound'. Survivors were rescued by the LCTs 63 and 181 but entombed within the steel hull of the De Haven were 10 of her officers and 157 enlisted men out of her crew of 299.
I.J.N. ASASHIO (March 2/7, 1943) The Japanese destroyer Asahio was one of eight on escort duty guarding a convoy of eight transports carrying 5,954 soldiers of the Japanese 20th and 51st Infantry Divisions and 400 marines of the Japanese Imperial Army from Rabaul, New Britain, to Lae, New Guinea, a distance of 260 miles, was attacked by a fleet of 129 Allied fighters and 207 bombers of all classes including squadrons, No.4, No.22 and No.30 of the Royal Australian Air Force. The attack was made after the convoy was spotted crossing the Huon Gulf and heading towards Lae, about eighty miles away. Nearly all the troop transports, including the 5,000 ton Kyokusei Maru, and the 3,800 ton Shinai Maru, were sunk in this concentrated and persistent attack. Some transports were scuttled, the troops making their way to shore in lifeboats and rafts. On the way, most were destroyed by bombing and straffing, many of the troops being taken by sharks as they struggled in the water like drowning rats. The slaughter continued for days until nothing more lived in the waters of Huon Gulf. The destroyer Arashio 1,500 tons (sister ship of the Asashio) was sunk, as were two others, the Tokitsukaza, 2,000 tons, and the Shirayuki, 1,700 tons. It was estimated that 3,220 Japanese troops and ships crews perished. Around 850 were rushed to Lae at the start of the attack, the destroyers then returning to the battle zone to rescue survivors. Ninety two men managed to reach the shore of New Guinea and a small number made it safely to nearby islands. Some 3,145 men were rescued from the water by the Japanese destroyers and two submarines and returned to Rabaul. Only three allied fighters and two bombers were shot down, the Japanese lost 63 aircraft.
HMS HARVESTER (March 11, 1943) While escorting a North Atlantic convoy the Harvester sighted the U-boat U-444 (Oblt. Albert Langfeld) while she was attempting a torpedo attack on the convoy. At full speed the destroyer rammed the submarine and a few minutes later the French corvette Aconit rammed her a second time. Meanwhile another U-boat, the U-432, fired a torpedo at the damaged Harvester which sank almost immediately. The death toll on the Harvester was eight officers and 136 ratings, the few survivors were picked up by the Aconit. The U-444 sank with a loss of 41 crew. There were 4 survivors. The U-432 (Kptlt.Heinz Otto Schultze) was also sunk during this engagement by depth-charges fron the Aconit. Casualties were 26 dead, 20 survivors.
CONVOY HX- 229 CONVOY
SC-122 (March 16-19,
1943) Two convoys, sailing on parallel
courses from Halifax to Britain, were attacked by three U-boat groups
consisting of 38 submarines. The attack occured along the east coast of
Newfoundland as the fast Convoy HX-229 overtook the slower moving Convoy
SC-122. The two convoys, each about five miles wide, consisted of 88 ships
and 15 escorts. Over the four days the convoys suffered the loss of 21
ships and one escort from the 90 torpedoes fired. Total casualties from
the two convoys amounted to 372 dead. In spite of the 298 depth charges
dropped by the escorts only one U-boat was sunk.
HMS BEVERELY (April 11, 1943) British destroyer (Ex USS Branch) sunk by torpedoes from the U-188 whilst escorting convoy ON-176 south of Greenland. Two days before, the Beverely had been in collision with the SS Cairnrona. Her captain, Lt. Cdr. R. A. Price and 139 crew members were lost. The U-188 was scuttled at Bordeaux on August 20, 1944.
LCG 15 and LCG 16 (Landing Craft
Gun) (April, 25, 1943) Their
purpose was to engage enemy shore batteries during the forthcoming beach
landings in Sicily. A number of these newly converted craft set sail from
the Belfast docks, their destination, Falmouth. As the weather
deteriorated and the seas mounted, many of the crews became seasick. As
they headed down the Welsh coast with the wind now at gale force the ships
started to fill up with water. Approaching the Naval Base at Milford
Haven, the LCGs 15 and 16 were battling to keep afloat. Swept
overboard, bodies were pummeled against the rocks. Hundreds of would be
rescuers had gathered on the cliff tops unable to help as they watched the
merciless seas pound the two vessels to smithereens. In all, 78 men
were lost from the two landing craft, there were only three survivors.
Today at Milford Haven, 39 gravestones stand in stark reminder of the
tragedy. The other bodies were sent back to their families for private
ESCANABA (June 13, 1943) US 1,05 ton Coast Guard cutter escorting a convoy GS-24 from Narsarssuak, Greenland, to Newfoundland, was sunk at 5.10am. The 165ft ship exploded and sank in just over three minutes taking 101 members of her crew with her. All died in the explosion or from hypothermia in the 39 cold degree water. Only 2 men survived the sinking, picked up by the tug Raritan some minutes later. A year earlier, on June 15, 1942 the Eacanaba had rescued twenty men from the SS Cherokee and on February 3, 1943 rescued 132 survivors from the SS Dorchester. It is not known what sunk the Escanaba, mine or torpedo. German sources records no U-boat attacks at that time. In its home port, Grand Haven, Michigan, a memorial service is held every year to honour the ship and its gallant crew.
SS HOIHOW (July 2, 1943) British vessel of 2,798 tons, owned by the China Navigation Company Limited of London and requisitioned early in 1943 by the Ministry of War Transport. Used mainly as a 'General Purpose Stores' ship servicing the island bases in the Indian ocean. While sailing from Mauritius to Tamatave the Hoihow was attacked by the German submarine U-181 (Wolfgang Lüth) On board were a crew of 94 and 7 gunners plus 48 passengers including some military and medical personnel. Of the 149 souls on board, only 5 survived.
MADDOX (DD 622) (July
10, 1943) During Operation ‘Husky’ (the invasion of Sicily)
the American destroyer Maddox was singled out by a lone JU-88
bomber of KG-54 Group when near Gela. Two 250 pound bombs were dropped,
the second struck the No.5 gun turret. The blast triggered off an
explosion in the magazine, demolishing the rear end of the ship. She then
rolled over and started to sink below the waves stern first, her depth
charges exploding as she went under. It was all over in less than two
minutes after the bomb hit the ship, the fastest sinking of any US vessel
in WW11. Those men in the bowels of the ship had no chance, 212 of them
going down with the vessel. There were 74 survivors who were rescued by a
tug nearby. (After the war, the pilot of the JU-88 was traced in Germany
and invited to a survivors reunion in May, 1998, a reunion which the
pilot, Kurt Fox, now Dr. Fox, was delighted to attend)
TIMOTHY PICKERING (July 13, 1943) Troop transport hit by two bombs from Stuka dive bombers while in the anchorage off Avola, Sicily. The two bombs landed in the ammunition hold causing a fire which the crew is unable to control. The resulting explosions sent the ship to the bottom under a mushroom cloud of flame and smoke. Of the 128 British troops on board 127 die as do twenty-two of the forty-three man crew. Sixteen of the twenty-three man Armed Guard are also killed leaving a death toll of 166. There were 23 survivors who were blown overboard by the initial blast.
I.J.N. KIYONAMI (July 19/20, 1943) Japanese troop transport which had helped in the sinking of the USS Gwin. The Kiyonami was sunk by American B-25 bombers, forty miles northwest of Kolombangra. The ship was in the process of rescuing the crew of the sinking destroyer Yugure when spotted and bombed. There were no survivors from either vessel, a total of 468 men died.
THE PIETRO MICCA TRAGEDY (July 29, 1943) The Italian submarine Pietro Micca was sunk near Santa Maria di Leuca. The vessel was enroute to Taranto and sailing on the surface to avoid mines when it fell victim to a torpedo fired from the British submarine HMS Trooper. It sank in less than a minute, leaving eighteen of its crew struggling in the water. These survivors were rescued by local fishermen. The rest of the crew, 54 in all, went down with the ship to be entombed in the hull on the ocean floor. It took some hours for the Italian Navy to commence rescue operations. Hydrophones were lowered to detect any sounds coming from inside the hull but only the chilling sounds of gunshots were heard. It is believed that those still alive decided to take their own lives rather than die after a slow and terrible agony. The wreck is now considered a war grave and remains untouched.
ARASHI (August 6/7, 1943) Imperial Japanese Navy destroyer, 2,490 tons, sunk while escorting a troop transport to Kolombangara. The Arashi was sunk between Kolombangara and Vella Lavella by gunfire and torpedoes from the American destroyers USS Craven, USS Dunlap and USS Maury. Her commander Sugioka Koushichi and 177 of her crew of 240 were lost.
LOUSIE LYKES (September 1, 1943) US merchant ship of 6,155 tons, bound for Northern Ireland, is sunk by the German submarine U-384 in the North Atlantic. There were no survivors. Ninety-four men including 50 crew, 34 Armed Guards and 10 US Army personnel, perished. (The U-384 was sunk by depth charges from a British aircraft south-west of Iceland on March 19, 1944. All hands, 47 men, perished)
BENJAMIN CONTEE (August 16, 1943) Only twenty-three minutes out of port, en route to Oran, the US freighter was hit by an aerial torpedo a few miles off Bone, Algeria. On board were 1,800 Italian prisoners and 26 British guards. The torpedo blew a hole fifty feet wide and twenty-one feet deep on her port side. The prisoners, filled with panic, broke out of the holds and rushed the lifeboats but didn't know how to launch them. When the shouting and screaming subsided the prisoners were assured that there was no immediate danger. The Benjamin Contee did not sink and she returned to Bone under her own power. Of the Italian prisoners on board, 264 were killed and 142 injured. None of the crew or British guards were lost. She later returned to service only to be sunk as a block ship at Normandy ten months later.
HMS EGRET (August 27, 1943) Attacked by a number of Dornier aircraft while on anti-submarine patrol in the Bay of Biscay, the sloop Egret exploded and sunk after being hit by a 293a guided bomb released from one of the bombers. This was believed to be the first warship sunk by a guided missile. The death toll on the Egret was 194 men killed.
USS ROWAN (September 11, 1943) While screening empty transport ships, returning to Oran after the Allied invasion of Italy at Salerno, the convoy was attacked by German E-boats just hours after leaving Salerno harbour. The wake of a torpedo was seen streaking towards the Rowan, fortunately it missed, but a second tin-fish hit the ship on her port quarter. This caused her 5 inch magazine to explode with an ear shattering roar. The once proud Rowan took only 40 seconds to sink, killing 202 of her crew of 273. There were only 75 survivors, picked up by the British destroyer USS Bristol. The Bristol was torpedoed a month later on October 12, by the U-371 and sank off Cape Bougaroun, Algeria, with the loss of 52 of her crew.
HMCS ST. CROIX (September 20, 1943) One of the 50 destroyers Britain bought from the USA in exchange for leases on Jamaica, Trinidad and Bermuda for future US bases. The St.Croix (ex-USS McCook) was then transferred to the Canadian Navy. As part of the Canadian 9th Escort Group she was torpedoed by U-Boat U-305, south of Iceland while escorting the west-bound convoys ONS-18 and ON-202. Fourteen officers and 134 ratings died. Five officers and 76 men were rescued by the destroyer HMS Itchen which in turn was torpedoed the day after by the same U-boat. From the rescued men of the St.Croix there was only one survivor. In all, 227 lives were lost. The corvette Polyanthus was also sunk during this attack by a new weapon, the 3,300-pound T-5 acoustic torpedo (GNAT), with a loss of 84 of her crew. Only three men survived from the three ships. The U-305 was sunk by depth charges from HMS Wanderer and HMS Glenarm on Jan. 20, 1944. Her entire crew of 51 were lost.
SS ARDENA (September 27, 1943) Greek ship of 1,092 tons, bombed and sunk in June, 1941 by the Luftwaffe during the invasion of Greece. Raised and repaired by the German Kriegsmarina, she was again sunk in 1943 after striking a mine off Argosoli. On board were around one thousand Italian soldiers 700 of whom perished.
KONRON MARU (October 5, 1943) Japanese transport sunk by the US submarine USS Wahoo while ferrying troops across the Tsushima Strait. On board the Konron Maru (Shimonoseki-to-Fusan Ferry Line) were 616 troops and crew of which only 72 were rescued from the heavy seas. Six days later (October 11) the Wahoo was sunk with all hands by Japanese naval aircraft in the La Perouse Strait)
ORKAN (October 8, 1943) Former British ‘M’ Class destroyer HMS Myrmidon, served under the Polish flag and renamed Orkan. It was this ship which carried the coffin of General Sikorski from Gibraltar to Plymouth. On the 8th of October, 1943, the Orkan was torpedoed by the U-boat U-378 and sank with 178 members of her crew. There were only 23 survivors.
USS BUCK (October 8/9, 1943) On patrol in the Gulf of Salerno, the destroyer was hit by two torpedoes from the U-616 (Cpt. Lt. Siegfried Koitschka) The devastating result of the exploding torpedoes caused a depth charge to explode and cover the ship in a pall of smoke and flame. Brought to a standstill, she settled swiftly by the bow and four minutes later disappeared beneath the sea. Detonations of depth charges that hadn't been set on 'safe' continued underwater as fuel oil rose to the surface choking many of the survivors in the water. Soon rescue vessels appeared on the scene and within 48 hours had plucked 76 men from the sea, but her captain, Lt. Cmdr. M. Klein and 150 crew members perished.
CAPE SAN JUAN (November 11, 1943) U.S. freighter torpedoed by Japanese submarine I-21. The ship was sailing from San Francisco to Townsville, Australia, with 49 crew, 41 gunners and 1,348 US Army troops on board. Sixteen men were killed when the torpedo hit and a further 114 drowned while they abandoned ship. The liberty ship Edwin T. Meredith picked up 443 survivors and brought them to Noumea, in New Caledonia. The survivors rescued by the destroyer USS McCalla were transferred to the USS Dempsey for medical care before being transported to Suva in the Fiji islands. Attempts to scuttle the Cape San Juan with gunfire failed and the ship remained afloat for another two days before sinking on the 13th.
USS McKEAN(November 17, 1943) U.S. destroyer sunk at the Battle of Empress Augusta Bay by a direct hit from a Japanese torpedo plane. The after magazine, containing the depth charges, exploded and ruptured the fuel tanks. Minutes later the forward magazine blew up and the ship began to sink by the stern. The destroyer (Lt.Comdr. Ralph L. Ramsey) was transporting 185 Marines from Gaudalcanal to Bougainville when she was attacked. A total of 64 crew members and 52 marines were killed. Survivors were picked up by rescue ships.
SUEZ MARU (November 29, 1943) On the islands of Ambon and Hasuku in the Moluccas, Allied prisoners were dying daily through starvation, disease and beatings by their guards. In the past six months almost 400 had died and around 700 were too sick to work. The Japanese then decided to send the sick back to Java. A total of 640 men, including a number of Japanese sick patients, were taken on board the 4,645-ton passenger-cargo ship Suez Maru. In two holds, 422 sick British (including 221 RAF servicemen) and 127 sick Dutch prisoners, including up to twenty stretcher cases, were accommodated. The Japanese patients filled the other two holds. Escorted by a minesweeper W-12, the Suez Maru set sail from Port Amboina but while entering the Java Sea and about 300 miles north-east of Kangean island, the vessel was torpedoed by the American submarine USS Bonefish commanded by Cdr. Tom Hogan. The ship started to list as water poured into the holds drowning hundreds. Hundreds more, Allied and Japanese, managed to escape the holds and were struggling in the water. The Japanese mine sweeper started to pick up survivors, but only their own nationals, leaving the British captives behind. Between 200 and 250 men were floating in the sea. The minesweeper then made several slow circles around the survivors and minutes later machinegun and rifle fire were directed towards the defenceless swimmers. Empty rafts and lifeboats were then rammed and sunk by the W-12. The minesweeper then picked up speed and sped off towards Batavia (Jakarta). They had rescued 93 Japanese soldiers and crewmen and 205 Japanese sick patients. Sixty-nine Japanese had died during the attack. Back at the site of the sinking only floating wreckage and an oil spill was all that was left of the Suez Maru. Of the 546 British and Dutch prisoners, there was only one survivor, a British soldier, Kenneth Thomas, who was picked up twenty-four hours later by the Australian destroyer HMAS Ballarat.
Over 90 percent of POW deaths at sea was the result of 'friendly fire'
HARVEY (December 2, 1943) U.S. Liberty ship, unloading at Berth 29 in the port of
Bari, on Italy's Adriatic coast, blew up in a cataclysmic explosion during
a twenty minute bombing attack by over 100 German JU-88 planes. The
harbour was jam-packed with Allied merchant ships as convoy after convoy
brought in much needed supplies for the British, American and
Canadian armies as they advanced up the Italian mainland. Part of the
cargo in the John Henry (Captain Knowles) was 100 tons of liquid
mustard gas bombs, (brought in just in case the enemy resorted to chemical
warfare) and guarded by a unit of the 701st Chemical Maintenance Company.
The blast wave caused by the explosion destroyed or sunk seventeen ships
in the harbour and killed or injured over 1,000 military and navy men,
civilian workers and nearby residents of the town. As ship after ship
exploded or caught fire, hundreds of men were struggling in the oil
covered water in a desperate attempt to escape. On the British Fort
Athabaska, forty-four men out of her crew of 56 were killed. With the
Allied hospitals filling up with injured, the doctors were at a loss to
know what caused the terrible burns on the victims. Of the 617 men who
made it to hospital, 83 had died during the first month. If they had known
at the time it was mustard gas, it is possible many more lives could have
been saved with the proper treatment. Winston Churchill immediately
clamped a tight security blanket over the whole affair and it was not
until about five years later that the public learned the whole truth.
CHUYO (December 4, 1943) The Imperial Japanese Navy escort carrier of 17,803-tons, torpedoed and sunk by the USS Sailfish making her tenth patrol under the command of Lt. Cdr. 'Bob' Ward. In mountainous seas and driving rain the Chuyo (Captain Okura) sank in about six minutes after being hit on the port side by two torpedoes. Around 1,250 officers, men and passengers died in the Chuyo, 160 Japanese survivors being rescued by the escort destroyer Urakaze. Among the casualties of the Chuyo were twenty American prisoners of war, half of the survivors from the USS Sculpin sunk earlier off Truk Island. Only one of them survived, machinist's mate George Rocek, who was hauled on board the Urakaze being mistaken for a Chuyo crew member. (Before the war the Sailfish was the USS Squalus which sank with the loss of a number of her crew. The submarine was salvaged and relaunched as the USS Sailfish. When the Squalus sank, the first on the scene of the tragedy was the USS Sculpin!)
USS LEARY (December 23, 1943) As part of Task Group 21.41 on convoy escort duty in the North Atlantic, the Leary was torpedoed by the U-275 which was equipped with GNAT acoustic torpedoes. Struck on the starboard side, the torpedo exploded in the after engine room killing all the men on duty there. Coming to a halt, the four stack destroyer wallowed helplessly with a 20 degree list. Then a huge internal explosion put paid to the ship and in a matter of seconds sank to the bottom taking with her 97 members of her crew and her captain, Cmdr. James Kayes. Survivors were rescued by the destroyer USS Schenck.
USS BROWNSON (December 26, 1943) While escorting landing craft during the landings on Cape Gloucester in New Britain, the destroyer was hit by two 500-pound bombs from a Japanese dive bomber. The ships entire upper structure was blown apart in a tremendous explosion and she started to list to starboard. Within minutes she settled rapidly, her back broken, and sank at 14.59 hrs, taking to the bottom 108 of her crew. Nearby destroyers, the USS Daly and the USS Lamson rescued 168 survivors from the water while depth charges from the Brownson exploded around them.